This document is a description of my
activity at the university of The Algarve. It was written for the
application of Associate Professor in 2011 and includes a CV and
the description of scientific and pedagogic work done. The
document is written in the HTML format to facilitate the modern
techniques of browsing through the document in an electronic
fashion and is available online at http://www.stallinga.org/AcadActiv/
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Stallinga, Faro, November 2017
2. Curriculum Vitae
Name: Peter Stallinga Institutional address: Universidade do
Algarve, FCT-DEEI, Campus de Gambelas, 8005-139 Faro,
Portugal Tel: +351-289863764 FAX: N/A e-mail:
Social networks: Skype: pstallinga Facebook:
Peter Stallinga Twitter:
P. Stallinga ORCID:
Main scientific area of research:
Physics of electronic materials
Other scientific areas of interest:
Informatics, Electronics, Biotechnology
Academic degrees: Agregação
in Physics, University of Porto, 2012. PhD
in Physics, University of Amsterdam, 1994, thesis title
“Investigation of selected paramagnetic centers in semiconductors”
drs in (informatics within) Physics, University
of Amsterdam, 1988
Professor Associado com Agregação, Universidade
do Algarve, Portugal, Faculty of Sciences and Technology,
Department of Electronic Engineering and Informatics, 2012-
Previous positions: Professor
Associado, Universidade do Algarve, Portugal, 2012-2012 Professor Auxiliar with definitive
assignment, 2005-2012 Professor
Auxiliar, University of The Algarve, Portugal, 2000-2005 Professor
Auxiliar Convidado, University of The Algarve, Portugal,
University of The Algarve, Portugal, 1997-1999 Current subject,
Electrical characterization of Organic semiconductors.
PostDoc, University of Aarhus, Denmark,
1995-1997 Magnetic resonance of hydrogen-related centers in
PostDoc, University of California at Berkeley,
USA, 1994-1995 Magnetic Resonance and optical characterization of
defects in III-V semiconductors
German (speaking, writing)
Polish (basic level)
Most scientific work was carried out at the University of
The Algarve (UAlg) in the laboratory of OptoEl (later
embedded into the Center for Electronics Opto-Electronics
and Telecommunications, CEOT).
I am at the moment 100% dedicated to CEOT, although many
cooperations exists with other research groups in UAlg,
Portugal (Lisboa) and Europe.
The research up to April 2010 can be divided into the following
branches (in chronological order)
Defects in Semiconductors (Magnetic
The Climate (hobby)
This was preformed in European research
networks, such as SELOA and MONA-LISA and national projects with
partners in Portugal. In total cooperations exist(ed) with
Amsterdam (UvA), Bologna (CNR), Eindhoven (Univ. and Philips
Research), Durham (Univ.), Marburg (Univ.), Thiais (Univ.),
Wuppertal (Univ.), Pau (Univ.), Glasgow (Univ.), Würzburg (Univ.),
Madrid (IMM), Bergen/Mons-Hainaut (Univ.), Cambridge (Univ.),
Linköping (Univ.), Łódz (Univ.), Banska Bystrica (Univ.), Lisboa
and Aveiro (Univ.), and UFABC (Brasil).
Defects in Semiconductors
Defects, intentionally or unintentionally introduced into the
materials determine the electrical characteristics of
semiconductors. The study and aquired knowledge of these defects
has paved the way for the semiconductor technology to keep
following Moore's law, with ever higher density of transistors and
ever increasing speed of integrated circuits. As a PhD student in
Amsterdam, I used Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) and
related resonance techniques (ENDOR, FSE, etc) to study these
defects in various semiconductor materials. The main topic was
hydrogen in silicon, where the hydrogen was implanted by a 5 MeV
particle accelerator into bulk silicon. As a highlight, the
obtruse hydrogen molecule was for the first time detected in
Rev. Lett. (1993)).
In two consecutive PostDoc positions, one in Berkeley (California)
and one in Århus (Denmark), the work was continued. In Berkeley
other materials and techniques were used, including
Photo-luminescence (PL) and Magnetic Circular Dichroism (MCD). The
long-stranding debate as to the origin of the Arsenic antisite in
GaAs was solved (Phys. Rev.
In Århus I returned to the topic of hydrogen in silicon. This time
not only with EPR but also FTIR (Fourrier-Transform InfraRed
spectroscopy). Many new defects were discovered, some of them for
years in vain tried to find by other groups in the world (Phys.
Rev. Lett. 1997, 1998,
Rev. B 2002).
For the electronic components of ultrafast modern computers,
defects are no longer the limiting factor. Moreover, I realized
that the reason for studying radiation defects mainly lies its
military aspects. As such he was looking for a new, more society
relevant research topic and switched his research area in a
dramatic way to Electrical Measurements of Organic Materials at
the University of the Algarve, a young and energetic university
with high potential in research.
The idea in the organic electronics part of the research is
characterizing new organic materials for modern electronics. Such
"plastic electronics" should, in principle, find applications in
low-cost areas such as electronic bar codes. However, plastics, as
we all know, have properties that can be tailor made and thus also
create their own market, in, for example, flexible electronics or
displays. As an example is the major advance in printed
electronics using standard printing techniques such as offset
printing, etc. This kind of electronic devices can only be made
with organic materials.
The applications of plastic electronics can thus be subdivided
into light-emitting devices and current-control devices. The
example for the first is LEDs (light-emitting diodes), while for
the latter an FET (field-effect transistor) is the classical
example. The research effort is more or less divided equally over
these two areas. The OptoEl laboratory, in which I am working, is
involved in both areas. The first years were spent on two-terminal
devices (Schottky diodes and pn bipolar diodes) for optical
applications using impedance spectroscopy. As a highlight, a
system was built that could measure deep levels in organic
devices. This variant of DLTS (deep-level transient spectroscopy)
was at that time the first successful DLTS experiment in organic
materials, whereas DLTS is a standard characterization technique
for in-organic materials such as Si, AlGaAs and InP, see J.
Appl. Phys. (2001).
In the latter years research was focused on three-terminal
devices, namely thin-film FETs. Over the years it has become
clear that organic materials in FETs behave similar to amorphous
silicon. In particular, most organic materials cannot be grown
easily in mono-crystalline form and they consequently are
trap-ridden. This causes an efficient trapping of mobile charges
onto deep levels from whence they are difficult to be removed.
Side effects of these traps are 1) Non-exponentially decaying
currents with times scales milliseconds to days. 2) Gate-bias
dependent effective charge mobility. 3) Drain-bias dependent
effective mobility. 4) Stressing (continuous increase of the
threshold voltage on time in operation) 5) Thermally activated
currents 6) Meyer-Neldel rule observation (activation energy of
current depends on bias conditions). This has been summarized in
publications in J.
Appl. Phys (2004) and Org.
Electr. (2006). Moreover, non-linear effects are often
attributed to the contacts. While we have shown this to be
incorrect (non-linear effects are a result of the Poole-Frenkel
type of conduction), it left room for a correct description of
the contacts, which are best described by metal-metal junctions,
a visit to the research group of Dr. Michele Muccini, a
light-emitting field-effect transistor (LE-FET) was
fabricated and measured. This merits to be
highlighted because it was, to our knowledge, the first
such device in the world (Synth.
Recently, a cooperation was started with the University
of Hong Kong for developing electronic devices based on
DNA. In this approach, DNA is treated as any other
organic material, with the advantage of the capability
of DNA to self assemble and self organize. This will
enable to bridge the gap to molecular electronics.
A metal transistor was predicted by me as a direct result
of the way the thin-film transistor was modeled. Because
the device with a metal for the active layer fully behaved
as a transistor, with the source-drain current programmed
by the gate-bias the device worked as a proof-of-principle
for the Algarve Model for transistors.
The metal transistor was considered innovation of the year
in Asia in 2008. See for instance the Research
Highlight in Nature Asia Materials, 6 August 2008.
And received at lot of attention of the media (TV, radio,
paper media, etc.). As an unexpected side effect, in
cooperation with electronics colleagues (Prof. Bastos),
the transistor is found to be possibly much faster than
state-of-the art silicon transistors of equal dimensions.
The potential implications of this are of course enormous.
Building on the knowledge of electrical measurements described
above two projects were started in the OptoEl lab. Measuring living biological
entities using impedance spectroscopy (Bio-FET) in a cooperation
with Prof. Leonor Cancela of the Center of Marine Sciences (Centro de Ciências do Mar). The initial plan was to use FETs as sensing
devices to measure the activity of living cells. Later it was
discovered that using impedance spectroscopy in a
micro-electrode array, the monitoring is much more effective.
The interaction of antibodies of sea shells with parasites was
measured in the evolution of loss-tangent (1/ωRC)(IEEE Sensors 2004). In a
contemporary project, FETs, based on the organic material
sexithiophene (T6) were used in sensing the vapor of TNT
commonly found in land mines. This research was driven by the
need for a cheap and reliable (especially avoiding so-called
"false negatives") sensors to remove the hundreds of millions of
land mines still scattered over our planet, leftovers from less
peaceful times. The use of FETs for the sensing is justified by
their property of being multi-parametric. While simple resistors
could, in principle, also respond to the TNT molecules, their
response is less selective, since the only thing that can change
is the resistance value. FETs have more parameters, such as
mobility, threshold voltage and leakage current. Monitoring all
parameters simultaneously increases the selectivity to, for
instance, distinguish between exposure to oxygen and TNT(IEEE Sensors 2004).
In 2011 a start-up company Vinyar, was created that tries to
address the problem of wine-production failure due to airborne
fungi. The idea is to develop sensing systems to detect and
eliminate the main agent causing the failure of wine.
Scientific Instrumentation Optoel being a new laboratory, everything had to be set up
nearly from scratch Moreover, my background was not in the
electrical measurements area but magnetic resonance instead. As a
postdoc in the period 1997-1999 I learned the electrical
measurement techniques, specifically impedance measurements.
Over the years, a variety of measurement systems has been
developed by me, thus turning OptoEl into an instrumentation
experts group. These measurements systems include
- RCL (resistance, capacitance, inductance) Impedance measurements
in the range 50 Hz - 1 MHz based on Fluke PM6306 RCL Bridge.
Measuring: Spectra, RCV Curves and Transients.
- LF-RCL (low frequency RCL) Low frequency impedance measurements
in the range of 1 mHz - 100 kHz home designed, based on a Stanford
Research Systems Lock-In Detector SR830.
- FET (field effect transistor) measurement system, home built,
based on a Keithley 487 picoammeter and a Hewlett Packard 6614C
equipment, measuring IV curves, transfer curves and transients.
- TSC/TSCAP (temperature scanned current/capacitance) for
determining traps and current processes in electronic materials.
- DLTS (deep-level transient-spectroscopy) system dedicated to low
- Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM). Measuring resonance frequency
with a Pendulum 666 frequency counter
- Measuring the full impedance spectrum with an HP 8712CNetwork Analyzer.
The latter two were used in a cooperation with the CBME (Centro de Biomedicina Molecular e
Estrutural) research center to measure the kinetics of
chemical reactions, in particular as detectors for DNA and
and Bioelectr. (2007), J. Molec. Recognit.
(2009)). My PhD student, João Encarnação graduated in 2008
in this field. Thesis title "Development of
Biosensors for Molecular Analysis".
Moreover, I have a background in informatics (studied Experimental
Physics with Informatics branch in Amsterdam) and gained knowledge
in "interfacing" (connecting equipment to computers for control
and data acquisition). Especially the combination of knowledge in
Informatics and one of the Natural Sciences is not often
encountered. For this reason, I was often invited to help set up
the technical equipment in other laboratories. As an example,
often visits were made to the group of Prof. Jorge Morgado in
Lisboa to help with their set-up, or the program Hyper Cromo to
measure impedance spectra transients custom made for the research
group of Prof. Guilherme Ferreira at CBME-Faro. More elaborate
projects were undertaken with the group of Dr. Michele Muccini in
CNR Bologna. Custom-made applications were developed in LabVIEW,
Visual Studio and PASCAL.
For some time our society is pestered by a pessimistic
outlook for the climate. How can that be? Not twenty years
ago there was no such thing as Global Warming. 30 years
ago the idea was Global Cooling. Moreover, how can it be
that one of the most harmless substances on earth, carbon
dioxide, is attributed the role of responsible agent?
Passionate for the weather and climate since early
childhood, I have been studying both sides of the debate
and can only conclude that Global Warming is the result of
the political way the subject is treated. With
international political bodies such as the IPCC dictating
the science, the outcome of 'research' is inevitable. The
ideas were summarized in a book "De
Mythe Van Klimaatsveranderingen" (Lulu 2010, in
Dutch). This will hopefully reopen the discussion in the
scientifically unhealthy area where saying anything
against the models of Global Warming is considered a crime
The publication of the book was basis for an interview
Dagblad, 2010. See short on-line version here.
As well as several seminars were given, see presentations list below.
Several papers were submitted to peer-review journals.
Some have been accepted with the utmost difficulty. It is
my experience that referees use gut-feeling for rejecting
the manuscripts. Still, the truth will prevail. See the
special page about the climate maintained by me: http://www.stallinga.org/Climate/index.html.
It is not possible to
base a career on scientifically analyzing the
Europe is in crisis. Why? What is the problem? We have
infrastructures to produce things, yet people are getting
poorer. What is going on here? The problem is in our
monetary system. A system that was invented to avoid a
crisis of overproduction (as predicted by Karl Marx) and
now seems to be running itself into trouble. http://www.stallinga.org/Economy/index.html
Overlapping with instrumentation, the idea is to
electrically measure living things. Starting with plants.
Currently we are measuring plant impedance spectroscopy.
Cooperations / Networks
cooperation was established with the research center CBME
(Centro de Biomedicina
Molecular e Estrutural) of the University of the
Algarve, specifically with Prof. Guilherme Ferreira and
Eng. João Encarnação. In this cooperation, a system was
set up to measure the resonant frequency of quartz
crystals with an immediate application the study of the
kinetics of chemical reactions and sensors for DNA. A talk
was given in the CEOT research center about the progress
in February of 2005 (). I regularly participated in the
meetings of the CBME research center.
one-month visits were made to the Istituto di Spettroscopia
Molecolare, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche in Bologna,
Italy, in the group of Dr. Michele Muccini: July 2002 : In-situ measurements
were carried out of field-effect transistors of BDT and
tetracene. July 2003 : A measurement system
("BolognaFET") was set up for field effect transistors.
FETs of terrylene and tetracene were measured. A
light-emitting field-effect-transistor, LE-FET (the first
in the world) was fabricated and characterized. A system
("PulseFET") was set up for measuring FETs with
ultra-short pulses (20 ns) which is based on a ultra-fast,
high band width, oscillosope of LeCroy and a pulse
generator of Agilent.
A cooperation was started with the Hong Kong University on
the measurement of electronic devices based on DNA
materials. This is still in very early stages. The first
results are on a field-effect transistor. The person
directly involved is Dr. V.A.L. Roy at The Department of
Chemistry of The University of Hong Kong.
Another cooperation with them is the fabrication of the
metal transistor. (Advanced
20, 2120 (2008)).
Universiteit van Amsterdam. During a sabbatical leave the
Space Separated Quantum Cutting was discovered and worked
out. This resulted in a publication in Nature Photonics. (Nature
2, 105 (2008)).
to the relevance for society (any increase in energetic
efficiency means decrease in CO2 emissions), this paper
received a lot of national and international attention.
See for instance
Diário de Notícias 23 February 2008, page
Correio de Manhã 2 February 2008, on-line.
NRC (Dutch), paper
Release (by P.S.)
been established with Prof. Adriano Benvenho of the
Federal University of ABC, where research is done on
electronic materials and devices
I started with a teaching load of 12 hours per week in the first
year. This is quite heavy, especially for someone that has to
learn the language and the topic. On average, an hour of
theoretical classes takes about 3 hours more in preparation and an
hour of practical classes about 1 hour more. Responsibility for a
discipline, especially those with a large number of students
consumes a lot of time too. This, of course, all depends on the
quality of the lectures. In general, it can be said that any
preparation in electronic format doubles the time spent. This
applies to all the types of documentation, also, for instance, the
administration around the lectures.
A lecture load of 12 hours means that it is a full job and doesn't
leave any time for science. Only after some years, when a stable
position has been won at the department with respect to the DSD
(distribution of services of docents), a little more time was
liberated for science.
However, preparing the lectures well gives more peace of mind when
talking in Portuguese in front of a class. Moreover, students at a
university deserve high quality lectures. Also, lectures well
prepared gives less work in following years. This shows once more
the importance of having a stable DSD for the quality of
education. I always prepared my lectures in the best possible way.
Add to this the fact that "knowledge should not only be hunted for
the love of knowing, but also to share it with your own brothers"
(Umberto Eco in The Island of the Previous Day). My background is
in Physics, but I am employed in the department of Electronics and
Informatics. For informatics I already had a reasonable knowledge
(studied Experimental Physics, Informatics branch in Amsterdam),
but especially for Electronics I had to study a lot to reach a
Up to this point I have given 16 different disciplines (7 when
considering the months of lecturing in Electronics I in a semester
that changed halfway). Of those disciplines, many of them were my
responsibility. For these disciplines, namely Introduction to
Computing (Introdução à
Computação), Programming I (Programação I, later renamed Imperative
Imperativa), Electronics II (Electrónica II), Physics of
Electronic Components (Fundamentos
de Componentes Electrónicos) and Electronic
Electrónica), Telecom Network Systems (Sistemas de
Redes de Telecomunicações), I wrote the lecture notes ("sebenta") and exercises. The
Instrumentation is currently written up into a book to be
published by Wiley. The first two are in HTML format for easy
access of the students studying at home and in the classroom. All
the lectures notes were made available on-line not only to the
university students but to everybody in the world, since I am a
big fan of the MIT idea of Open Courseware. All this can be found
in the annex or following the links in the table below. For the
informatics theoretical lectures, initially transparencies were
used. For the other lectures, the blackboard was used. In more
recent years datashows arrived at the university. Powerpoint
presentations were prepared by me for the informatics lectures,
see the links below (to save paper, these are not included in the
hardcopy of this document).
The highlight for 2012 is working
on a book about the lectures of Electronic Instrumentation. This
is a work in progress that is expected to be finished in summer
of 2014 and will have about 300 pages.
it is worth mentioning that on-line educational software
was written that simulates complicated physical ideas of
electronic components. For compatibility reasons, these
simulations were written in Java applets and were embedded
into HTML pages. Click on the icon Java or follow this
link to see the simulations: http://www.stallinga.org/AcadActiv/Lectures/Java/index.html.
On the CD it can be found here.
Other pedagogic activities
Final Year Projects:
José Almada and Nelson Pimenta, Final-year project of
ESC named "Measuring FET parameters as a function of frequency" (Parâmetros de FET's em Função de
Frequência), 4 November 2003.
Diogo Emanuel de Moura Lobo and Carlos Miguel Fernandes
Dias, Final-year project of ESI named "Implementation of QCM
mesaurement system", 2005-2006.
In 2005, a student from Ryszard Łazarski University of Commerce
and Law visited me to do a one month stage in OptoEl.
(Co)Supervisor of PhD student, João Encarnação, "Development of
biosensors for the malaria setting", SFRH/BD/12772/2003. Graduated
January 2008 Thesis title: "Development of
Biosensors for Molecular Analysis".
Supervisor Starting Investigator (BIC) André Romão, 2005.
In 2000, I was invited to give lectures at the SELOA Summer School
in Bologna. The details of the lecture and the link to the
"Electrical Characterization of Organic Semiconductors", Peter Stallinga,
Later an additional document in the same style was added:
"Theory of (organic) (thin film) Field-Effect Transistors",
Finally, I guided two students of the course of Informatics
Teaching (Ensino de Informática)
and evaluated them when they were doing their stage on a secondary
school in Odemira. This involved going to the school and
sitting-in at their lectures and determining their (scientific)
quality. In this way I got an idea about the educational system of
Portugal. Some interesting aspect about the total arbitrariness of
the lectures atributed by my colleagues to their students. See
5. Administrative Activity
Course Director (Subdirector
de Curso) of the course LESI (Licenciatura de Engenharia de Sistemas e Informática,
formerly known as ESC, Engenharia
de Sistemas e Computação).
While being vice director of ESC/LESI, I helped in the
organization of the department, for instance in the open days and
other forms of advertising our courses. Examples are the design of
the brochures for LESI in 2004 and 2005, see attachments and . Course Director (Director de Curso) of the
course LESI in 2006. Member of the course direction (Direcção de curos) of the
course Physics 2009-2012 Course Director (Director
de Curso) of the course MIEET, 2013-
Organisation of the books.
For the past years, I was responsible for the organization of the
acquisition of new books for the department.
Cientific Councils. As any
other doctorate member I participated in the departments
administrative bodies of the Scientific Council (Conselho Cietífico) of the
department DEEI and the faculty FCT. I attended most of the
meetings to which he was invited.
Network meeting organizer.
Helping organizing network meetings for SELOA and MONA-LISA
(2001). Twice the European network held a meeting in Faro. First
the SELOA network and later the MONA-LISA network.
spin-off company, named Vinyar, was started that addresses
the problem of air quality control at wine production
facilities. The problem consists
of the airborne fungi that enter the bottle at the time
of botteling of the wine. It is estimated that some 1%
of all wine in Portugal is lost every year due to this
problem. In a country with a substantial wine industry
-- of about 1 billion euros per year -- this is
obviously a huge problem. The direct damage is in the
order of tens of millions of euros per year, but the
damage goes much beyond direct physical damage. Every
bottle that is opened and that smelss of 'rotting cork'
destroys the image of the wine house and should thus be
avoided at all cost. The idea is to develop sensing
systems to detect and eliminate the main agent causing
this failure of wine. See the business presentation here.
Finally, work that doesn't fit in the catagories above (scientic,
pedagogic or administrative), but which is worth mentioning is the
CAD (computer-aided design). I designed the logos of the
Opto-Electronics and Organic-Electronics laboratories as well as
the CEOT research center (and also the Vinyar logo above):
logo was designed in 1997 and is based on the logo of The
University of The Algarve (see in the beginning on the
right of this document). The Univeristy logo with its
excentric circles symbolizes the spreading of knowledge in
the direct area of the university, namely The Algarve. The
Opto-El logo incorporates the university logo which
represents that Opto-El wholeheartedly supports the
idealogy of the university. The electronic components
added to the University logo represent the electronic
nature of the laboratory. Moreover, the FET, in series
with an LED and ground symbolize that "While we have
everything under control, we are brilliant, but remain
with our feet on the ground".
The resulting mono-chrome image is very modern and is also
good when printed in black and white or in inverse colors.
The disadvantage is that it is a little too detailed and
as such doesn't follow modern design conventions, which
favors simpler designs. Moreover, the lines of the
electronic paths are too thick.
The logo was designed with the PjotrSoft (Peter Stallinga)
PASCAL graphics toolbox (EPSTool) with output in
CEOT logo was designed at the onset of the research
center, in 2001. The three facets of the cube represent
the three legs of the research center, namely Electronics,
Opto-electronics and Tele-communications. Later, in
practice, the legs have integrated and the edges have
blurred. The sphere with the C, in comparison to the cube
being of different geometric shape, symbolizes that were
are not uniformist and can approach a problem in many ways
and shows the strength of the research center.
The combination of the sphere and especially the cube
gives the logo a three dimensional character and, adding
to this, the pastel colors gives it a pleasant look.
Moreover, the logo lends itself very well to manipulations
in the modern informatics world (read internet pages), see
for instance the CEOT pages, but is less adequate for
black-and-white representations. For this purpose
(hardcopy commucations) a mono-chrome version was designed
The logo was designed with Corel Draw 8 (due to font
incompatibilities in the Corel Draw versions, it is no
longer readible in version 10).
OrgEl logo was designed in 2009 and once again it is based
on the University logo of the four eccentric circles. The
idea was to use the same 'atmosphere' of the rings that
can be seen as the letter 'O' and use the same style to
write a letter 'E', thus forming a acronym OE. The logo
was designed using EPSTool with output in (Encapsulated)
design with social-networks-badge-like round aspects and
minimal on the colors. A bunch of grapes composed of
benzene rings with a alhohol stem to show the link with